On a vast rubbish-strewn field in a mining area east of Johannesburg, hundreds of destitute Africans who have fled their makeshift homes in nearby slums shiver in the morning cold.
The land, covered in white tents donated by aid groups, resembles the all-too-familiar refugee camps seen across this violence-hit continent as children fill bottles from a water truck and camp fires smoulder.
"These clothes I'm wearing are all I've got left," says 33-year-old Lucas Sitoe, his eyes heavy from another night spent sleeping rough in the near-freezing temperatures of South Africa's approaching winter.
"They burnt everything else," he adds.
Sitoe is one of an estimated 35000 people who have been displaced in a wave of anti-immigrant violence that has wracked the country for the past two weeks, leaving 56 dead and hundreds injured.
The area of Primrose has been one of the worst affected areas. Gangs of armed thugs have conducted door-to-door searches in local shantytowns looking for the foreigners they blame for high crime and unemployment.
With nowhere else to go, the persecuted fled to Primrose police station for protection and the field next door has now become home.
"These South Africans told us to leave. It's not fair," complains Agnes Ncube, 31, who sleeps on a bed of cardboard boxes but still finds the energy to wash a few items of clothing in cold water.
"My husband, a Mozambican, was running his own business selling pieces of chicken. He took the job of nobody," says the Zimbabwean, who arrived in South Africa shortly after the end of apartheid in 1994. "They took all his stuff."
The scene of misery in Primrose is repeated all around Johannesburg and Pretoria, the hotspot of recent violence where the Red Cross says it is caring for about 25000 people in more than 20 centres. Aid groups in Cape Town are also struggling to feed and care for another 10000 who have left their homes in fear of looting, beatings and rape.
Amid mounting criticism nationwide of the official response to what has become a national crisis, aid worker Jannie Potgieter says she hasn't seen anyone from the ruling ANC and "not even the mayor".
The local authority has sent about 30 portable toilets, all filthy and unbearably smelly, which are cleaned from time to time by workers wearing masks.
South Africa's new army of homeless wait in queues for their breakfast: a cup of tea, a bowl of porridge and four slices of bread.
Potgieter worries that illness and disease is just round the corner. "We have a very sick man lying under a tent. We're waiting for the doctor but with this cold more people are coughing or have diarrhoea," she says. - Sapa-AFP