The 25-year-old man was diagnosed with the virus on Wednesday after tests conducted on him revealed he had the vibrio cholera bacteria.
The man was allegedly kept at the Lindela Repatriation Camp before he was deported to Harare two weeks ago.
He returned to South Africa and was kept at a shelter in Musina, where he became ill.
He was taken to the local hospital where he is still undergoing treatment.
Limpopo MEC for health Norman Mabasa confirmed yesterday the first tests conducted on the man had discovered the vibrio cholera bacteria.
He said they were working very hard to establish the facts surrounding the man's illness.
"We are worried about the possibility of a cholera outbreak."
He said a team from the provincial department would work with the national response team "to guide us on curbing the outbreak".